Mud pumps are the components of the equipment intended for use in oil well drilling. A mud pumping plant provides circulation of mood in the well; as a result, rocks are kept in the form of suspension (to prevent slime from deposition), slime is removed from the well bottom and the well, and the drilling bit is cooled (to prevent malfunctions during operation).
The pumps of this type comprise mechanics and hydraulics.
The pump mechanics includes:
The pump hydraulics includes:
Mud pump operate as follows: rotary movement, driven by the crank gear and connecting rods, is transferred by the motor transmission. A piston operates in a cylinder, producing pressure. As a result, mud is sucked. The suction valve is closed when moves left. Then, pressure grows in the pipeline, forcing the valve to open; as a result, mud is released.
In accordance with the operating liquid displacer type being in used, these pumps are subdivided into piston units (the displacer is made as a disc) and plunger-type units (pumps provided with an outer gland). Liquid discharge uniformity in these pumps does not depend on the head. These pumping plants are actively used for processes with highly viscous liquids and with liquids containing high amounts of solid inclusions. Also, pumping units has a function of self-suction. During a single shaft turn, liquid is sucked and discharged twice in mud pumps; so, these pumps are double-action pumps. Mud plunger pumps are single-action pumps (during a single shaft turn, substance is sucked and discharged once). Single direct-action three-piston pumps (provided with three pistons) proved to be better than any other types for drilling. These pumps, as compared with two-cylinder units, demonstrate much more uniform mud delivery, easy mounting and lesser weight.
As for mud pumping plants with the piston-type displacer, they may be the drive-type units and the direct-action units, depending on the method used to drive the displacer.
In drive units, the piston is activated by the motor. In direct-action pumps, the common rod is used to connect the operating liquid displacer and the power cylinder piston.
According to the number of cylinders, mud pumping plants are classified into single-cylinder, double-cylinder, three-cylinder and multi-cylinder pumping plants. The cylinders may be horizontal or vertical. Costs for making multi-cylinder pumping plants are much higher; however, they have no significant advantages.
The pumps of types as follows, necessary for mud pumping-out and flushing-out, may be installed on drilling rigs:
Sucker-rod pumps. A pumpjack is a driver for a sucker-rod pump. The pump is installed at the well bottom. The pumpjack’s reciprocating movements are converted by the pump into the liquid flow, resulting in liquid delivery onto the surface. These pumps can move oil with various admixtures; they demonstrate high level of capacity.
Screw pumps. These units are used to deliver mud into a centrifuge. The major structural components are the rotor (made of stainless steel) and the stator (made of elastomeric material). The materials used to make the pump components are appropriate for smooth pumping of liquids with high level of viscosity and with solid inclusions. Pumped liquid flows with a shaft slowly, with stable pressure, and the flow is free of vortexes. These pumps are small-sized and require minimum service.
Well pumps. These units are submerged into wells. The ground part of the plant is a transformer substation with the equipment for start and adjustment. This is a vertical structure, single-action, with a fixed cylinder. A plunger and valve are moving parts. Water content in pumped liquid may be up to 99%, with temperature as high as 130ºC.
The advantages of all types of mud pumps include their capability to process substances with high level of viscosity and with admixtures, and smooth flow of substance, free of pulsations or suspension mixing. The latter is due to low speed of liquid flow in combination with high pressure produced. Also, these pumps have high suction power and small weight, making easier their transportation and installation at remote oil fields. These pumps are highly reliable, and the cost of accessories for these pumps is low.
Mud pumps are used in petroleum extraction for purposes as follows:
We are convinced that our company ENCE GmbH will become your reliable and efficient distributor (authorized representative) of your mud pumps in the Russian market.
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