Piston pump is a type of pumping units where a displacer forces the liquid out of static working chambers. A piston pump working chamber is closed space sequentially communicating with pump inlet/outlet.
Piston pumps energize the pumped fluid transforming it from mechanical motor power, that is this pump type energizes the pumped medium enabling it to overcome resistance, inertia and static height in the pipelines.
There are various piston pump classifications displaying construction features of piston pumps, their performance peculiarities, compatible operating liquid, working device speed rate and produced operating pressure.
Piston pumps can have both hand and mechanical drive. Pumps with mechanical drive can be of two types:
By the type of a working device displacing the liquid, piston pumps can be of:
By course of action, piston pumps can be:
Piston pumps are classified by cylinder position (horizontal and vertical) and by number of cylinders (pumps with one, two, three or more cylinders).
By the number of pistons, pumps are classified as those with one, two or more pistons. Also, by the discharge amount, pumps are classified as those with large pistons (with the diameter more than 150 mm), medium-size pistons (with the diameter 50 mm to 50 mm) and small-size pistons (with the diameter less than 50 mm). By the operating element speed, pumps are classified into three types: slow piston pumps (40 to 80 double strokes per minute), moderate-speed piston pumps (50 to 80) and high-speed piston pumps (150 to 350).
This type of pumps is applied to move cold water (common pumps), hot water (hot pump), to process acidic substances (acid pumps) or mud solutions (mud pumps), etc.
By the operating pressure level, pumps are classified into those producing high, moderate and low pressure.
By the main component movement style, piston pumps are classified as direct-acting pumps and power pumps. In direct-acting pumps, the main component movements are reciprocating; in power pumps (e.g. cam-driven pumps), the main component rotates.
Cam-driven and submersible pumps are widely applied.
For example, cam-driven pumps have a single cylinder, with the operating element activated by a cam and returned to its home position by a spring. In these pumps, liquid discharge is non-uniform; however, their design is small-sized. In cam-driven pumps, cylinders are installed radially, and axes are crossed in a common center. Shoes are used to reduce contact pressure between the displacer and the cam. Cam-driven pumps are capable to produce high pressure; so, they are used in hydraulic drives, for liquid injection in hydraulic presses and as fuel pumps in diesel engines.
Submersible pumps are very small and are used at boreholes.
Piston pumps comprise one of types of volumetric units, with displacers used to push liquid from static working chambers. The basic components of a piston pump are the working chamber and a displacer. For volumetric pumping equipment, the working chamber is the enclosed space alternately connected with the pumping plant inlet and outlet. The displacer is an operating element that displaces substance from the unit’s working chambers.
In single-action piston pumps, the rod connects the displacer with the crank gear; as a result, the displacer reciprocates in the cylinder. When the piston travels right, vacuum is produced in the working chamber. As a result, operating liquid is suctioned by the valve through the pipeline into the chamber. When the piston travels back (left), the discharge valve is open and the suction valve is closed. As a result, liquid is injected into the discharge pipeline. To increase efficiency of piston pumps, they are often made as double, triple pumps, etc. The single crankshaft is used in these pumps to activate pistons.
The advantages of piston pumps, as compared with other types of pumping plants, are as follows:
Liquid delivery provided by piston pumps is not uniform, and the dimensions of these pumps are quite large (for example, larger than the dimensions of centrifugal pumps). Their design is complex; however, they are capable to produce high heads. Piston pumps are used for operation with clean liquids, because these pumps have valves. Admixtures in operating liquid can result in pump failure.
Piston pumps are actively used in water supply systems, in household equipment, in food industry, chemical industry, and for making the material deposition equipment. Some types of piston pumps, such as diaphragm units, are used as components of internal combustion motors for fuel delivery; also, they are used for operations with mortars and other substances containing admixtures. Submersible pumps are widely used for works carried out at boreholes. Mud pumps are used to move mud solutions.
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